Maximum speed: 32.5 knots Shield: Belt 127, turrets 155, bridges 25, blockhouse 127 Armament: 15 guns of 152 (5 × 3), 8 of 127 mm, 30 of 40 mm AA (4 × 4, 6 × 2), 20 of 20 mm, 8 mitt. The Omaha were the first American cruisers after a very long eclipse dating back to 1907 (the Chester). The Alaska class was to have 6 buildings, but soon, when it became apparent that the concepts underlying them were totally out of date, the other three, which should have been started in June 1943, were canceled. But they were deployed both in Korea and Vietnam. Their aft superstructure was lightened, and from 1943, a new drastic overhaul of the superstructure occured, which were lowered and lightened, but better armored. So there was definitively a specification profiling for a stable, large hull, to be a stable gun platform, especially to house numerous, faster firing lighter guns. On the other hand, anti-aircraft artillery was entrusted to eight 5-in (127 mm), way too slow to deal with modern strafing aviation, alongside eight 2.5 in way too short in range. These two ships were heavily engaged in the Pacific. USS Springfield (CGL-7) as modernized in the late 1960s. I am often confused when I try to understand the differences between a battleship, a cruiser, a destroyer, a frigate and a corvette. BMW R61 . The influence of President Roosevelt on their design is often cited. They were developed fro 1920 into the models Mk 12, Mk 14, Mk 15, Mk 18 on Mountings Mk 13, Mk 16, and Mk 17. 12.7 mm, 2×3 TLT 533 mm, 4 seaplanes. Meanwhile there was also the treaty ‘London II’ which imposed a vacancy on heavy cruisers. USS Astoria, Quincy and Vincennes were famously destroyed during the battle of Savo in August 1942, and the others participated in many hard engagements but survived the war. These three ships were the culmination of wartime US cruiser design. The CH-10-12 conversion cruisers (USS Albany, Chicago and Columbus) were actually the most extreme conversions with two twin Talos SAM systems, forward and aft. At the same time, simplifications in design were made, just like other classes like the Fletcher-class destroyers to reduce the delivery rate. The Admiralty also sought to define a new type of light cruiser to replace the old Omaha class from the 1920s. It’s actually closer in concept to a Battleship then a Battlecruiser. Medium-class Military Motorcycle. The concept was reminiscent (and partly inspired by) the British Dido class. WRT destroyers I really think pollies have … The hull was also shortened and lowered. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives. The whole superstructure was rebuilt, and needless to say, the remaining artillery removed. New features not connected directly with the guns included a unit machinery arrangement similar to that in battleships and unique among US cruisers, and a separate ‘bomb deck’ to improve protection against bombing (not counted in computation of the immune zone against the 8in 260lb shell 15,700-28,000yds). 1932. The serie ended with the CL 147 USS Gary, last conventional cruiser laid down by the USN (cancelled in 1945). This heavy cruiser, derived from the Brooklyn class, shared the hull with its square stern, and was authorized under the Treaty of London, for the fiscal year 1935. With a limited beam and a lightly built hull, this caused a dangerous overweight and the Pensacola cruisers were quickly seen as excessive “rollers”. *Name given to the USN missile systems developed in the 1950-60s: Talos, Terrier, Tartar. The interwar generation cruisers were discarded in the 1940-50s, apart the early war Brooklyn class, partly resold to foreign countries, like Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The definitions change so often it’s hard to keep up. Their artillery was original, with an arrangement of two double turrets and pieces in barbettes, an unlikely mix that illustrated their transitional nature. In the end Baltimore class units were preferred and she joined the demolition yard in 1959. The US Navy therefore only released itself to study a new standard of conventional heavy cruiser (the term “conventional” designated during the cold war a ship not armed with missiles, but having artillery like main weapon.). BT-2 (Bystrochodnij Tankov) Fast Light Tank. This was, by all margins, the largest cruiser force that ever roamed the oceans. This measure also save some top weight, making the ships more stable. Hi. Well it's something of a minefield, as the nomenclature has both changed over time, and different countries can have different names for the same class of ship or the same name as a different class of ship in another navy. Required fields are marked *. shell or a 260 pounds (118 kg) H.E. Realistically virtually all current frigate and destroyer classes in most navies fill the various roles that cruisers did up until WW2, with about the same level of diversification. With the Baltimore, we went to 12 of 127 mm, 48 of 40 mm, 24 of 20 mm in 1942, and much more in 1945. The Albany class remained the largest missile cruiser ever built by the United States, displacing 18,777 tonnes fully loaded versus 16,600 for the Long Beach and even 8,000 tons above the Virginia class nuclear missile cruisers (1974), the weight of the latter and a Leahy class (1961) combined ! Indeed, Admiral King argued strongly for their completion on the theory that a homogeneous group of eight such ships would be extremely valuable. BMW R4. Maximum speed: 33 knots Shield: Belt 152, turrets 203, bridges 57mm Weaponry: 9 guns of 203 mm (3 × 3), 8 of 127 mm, 8 ML 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft Crew: 929. In 1943, in July, the USS Helena was sunk by German guided flying bombs. The USN present us to a radical, unusual fact: There has been a total ‘vacancy’, a gap in naval programs concerning cruisers. In addition, this was compounded by the adoption of tripod military masts, both tall and heavy, to suppoer the fire control posts, and a tall bridge blockhouse. The interwar cruisers relied on single or dual mounted 12.7 mm or 0.5 in cal. France fell, and in the meantime from 1935 the USN purchased two Oerlikon 20 mm Model 1934 guns for evaluation, but rejected it for having a low muzzle velocity and rate of fire. From USS Oakland, they differed by an open deck and additional light AAA instead of their side turrets. Later the Board accepted conventional side protection comparable to that of the Clevelands, and by the time the design had been completed early in 1944 the Chief of the Bureau of Ships saw it for the now seriously overloaded Clevelands. USS Savannah in Algiers, near a burning Liberty ship, fall 1942. Characteristics (in 1941) Displacement: 9,006 t, 11,420 T FL Dimensions: 182.96 x 20.14 x 5.9 m Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 Parsons turbines, 4 WT boilers, 107,000 hp. Intervention cruiser? They were all named after major Texan cities. Muzzle velocity was 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s) and maximum range was 30,050 yards (27,480 m). USS Houston in march 1942, with an early navy blue camouflage measure, in the Solomons. Some were dropped from the lists after 1960, and others survived until 1970-78. The Baltimore class heavy cruisers were also placed in reserve in the 1940s-50s, reactivated and modernized, some kept as pure conventional ships, and others as CG/CAG missile cruisers conversions. USS Pensacola twin, USS Salt Lake City, was launched in 1930 and completed in 1931. 109. The project was revived in 1941, with General Board Characteristics calling for twelve 6in DP guns, no 5in secondary battery, protection limited to a very thick deck (up to 6 or 7in) and a speed of at least 33kts. The weaker version was the Mark 17, only capable of 5-8 rounds per minute and installed on the Erie class gunboats in single mounts. The USS Pensacola in March 1945, in support of Okinawa. Both ships received already counterkeels in 1939 to improve their stability, but in 1942 their superstructures were massively lightened, and the massive tripod masts were removed. Dead right. The USS Milwaukee in June 1942, departing for Guadalcanal. USS Boston and Canberra were converted at New York SB, both were recommissioned in November 1955 and June 1956. Light Military Motorcycle. The hull in particular was retained for all subsequent cruisers, heavy or light. The Baltimore rose to 17,000 tons at full load, and with Prinz Eugen German, to 20,000 tons. The CA2 USS Rochester was indeed going back to 1891. The turrets received 0.9-3 in (25-70 mm) and the barbettes 7-in (170 mm). As a kind of stroke of fate (or celestial vengeance for the Japanese), the cruiser on her return on July 29 was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. In fact the sub-class Oregon City had comparatively far less of the smaller 20 mm Oerlikon guns: Twenty. The Brooklyn class opened a new entry in American cruiser design in general: The main change was the use of a roomier flush deck hull, to fill a niche in the unlimited number of cruisers that can fill the 143,500 long tons allocation. - If a destroyer is a short-range ship that accompany a fleet, how is it going to be refuelled? The last version even made it on a cold war Forrest Sherman destroyer, the USS Hull, for testing purposes, called the 8 in/55 Mark 71 gun mount. G-Opt Calling all USS Northampton class (CA) fans [ Go to page: 1... 12, 13, 14] nzmatt. They were never popular with the crews and were replaced by 40 mm mounts as soon as they were available. 1938. Armor: Turrets 50-60, belt 76, blockhouse and casemate 95-20 mm, bridge 25 mm. And this force was to be also present in the Atlantic north and south and the Mediterranean, or the northern sea to Murmansk. The AAA artillery differed between ships, 28 x 40 mm and 21 x 20 mm for both Fargo subclasses in 1945. Among their originality, the front mast was much lower, as well as the rear one, lighter and cleared of projectors, relegated to footbridges behind the funnel, for a better stability. The signing of the Treaty of London, then a report from the US Naval Attaché to Japan which noted that the IJN Admiralty with the Mogami was working on a new type of cruiser combining low displacement and great firepower, presided over the design of Brooklyn class ships. shell. At first a twin installation in Oregon City hulls was contemplated, on the theory that these ships might not even be delayed by the change; however, the General Board was already dissatisfied with existing heavy cruiser designs and felt that by demanding a completely new ship with triple turrets it would provide the postwar fleet with at least some satisfactory cruisers; otherwise the war might end with nothing but an inadequate six-gun ship under construction. -The basic mark 9 gun unit weighted 30 tonnes, including a liner, tube, jacket, five hoops and its down-swing Welin breech block. With 29 completed out of 52 keels laid down, 13 cancellations and 10 converted into fast aircraft carriers (USS Independence class), this was the new standard of USN “light” cruisers. She sank quickly, taking with her a large part of the crew, the others having to survive through the burning oil, and later isolation and fatigue, shark attacks for several days before being collected. Like all naval powers, USN cruiser design was framed by the successive treaties, starting with Washington in 1922, which fixed a standard for heavy cruisers, London I (1930) and London II (1935) which redefined the notion of cruiser and pushed for a new generation armed with 6-in guns with an heavy cruiser tonnage. In the modern era the parlance is played fast an loose. The last USN major loss in this war. - Banning Communism or Fascism should now also remove foreign communist/fascist influence national … The concept had resulted in a lightweight generic ship exclusively armed with the new standard 5-in (127 mm) dual purpose, twin turrets. Technically all French escort ships postwar (... other than the cruisers) have carried D-markings, were reported to NATO as destroyers and were internally called "First Rank frigates" (which has always designated destroyers) or "Squadron Escorts". To survive in front of heavier ships, the Atlanta class had to rely on their speed. As squadron destroyer leaders they proved a little more useful. They were still in service in the 1980s, with little change. Succeeding to the Pensacola, the Northampton class improved many points. They were by tonnage heavy cruisers, with a displacement of nearly 10,000 tons, but “light cruisers” as armed with fifteen 6-in (152 mm) guns of a new semi-automatic type, twice as fast as 8-in guns. They were closely modelled on the Brooklyns but improved in all directions, range, AA … In October, 1943 CA134 was added to the new class (Des Moines) to bring it to five ships; the question was also asked whether CL143, 148 and 149 were shifted to the new heavy cruiser design, but CL144, 145, 146 and 147 were retained as units of a new 6in DP cruiser class (Worcester) CA139-142 and CL143-149. The latest versions of ships seem to have dropped the whole scheme for acronyms. During this period, the USN tested and operated no less than six cruiser types: The scout cruiser (Omaha class), the AA cruiser (Atlanta class, 5-in DP guns), the light cruiser (up to the Worcester, arguably “heavy-light”, but with 6-in guns), the heavy cruiser (from Pensacola to Des Moines, 8-in guns), and even the “large cruiser” (Alaska class, 12-in guns). It was replaced by the much faster Mark 20 Gun Sight after the war. With the Alaska, the Admiralty intended to pass directly to the caliber 305 mm, that in force on the ships of line since 1890 and until 1916. Those sent to the Pacific as those assigned to the Atlantic served as escorts. The Oerlikon AA guns has been designed by Switzerland and intended first to serve as a main French AA light gun. Each time these manoeuvers needed to be made a a lower speed than the operation required. These guns, declined into many variants were the staple of USN heavy cruiser design, from the Pensacola class and Lexington class aircraft carriers to the Des Moines. Specifications: Displacement: 17,255 long tons standard, 20,933 LT full load Dimensions: 218.39 x 23.32 x 6.7 m (716 ft 6 in x 76 ft 6 in x 22 ft) Propulsion: 4 shafts GE turbines, 4 boilers 120,000 shp Performances: 33 knots (61 km/h), Range 10,500 nmi at 15 knots Armament: 3×3 8 inch/55, 6×2 5 inch/38 12 x 2 3 inch/50, 12 × 20 mm Oerlikon Armour: Belt: 4-6 in (102-152 mm), Deck: 3.5 in (89 mm), Turrets: 2-8 in (51-203 mm), Barbettes: 6.3 in (160 mm), Conning tower: 6.5 in (165 mm). Another peculiarity of these ships was the adoption of a better distributed shielding, and new shells for their 203 mm pieces. There was a gap between the Cleveland class and the Brooklyn, which left time to perfect the design. They did not participated in the conflict unlike the other eight completed in 1942-45, USS Atlanta, Juneau, San Diego, San Juan, Oakland, Reno, Flint, and Tucson. The first 8-in caliber developed for modern USN cruisers was a 55 caliber, developed into the Mk 9, Mk 12, Mk 14, Mk 15 and Mk 16 variants. These ships were able to bring to bear eight 5-inch/38 mounts, making for a sixteen shells with a rate of fire of 15 rpm, making for 17,600 pounds (8,000 kg) each minute. Similarly, the original design included 12 quadruple 40 mm guns and 20-20mm; both ships were, however, armed exclusively with the new 3in/50 gun as completed. But in 1944, the situation in Japan was such that the only threats to be feared were Kamikazes and pocket submersibles of the coastal defense or suicide boats. Browning HMGs, of the liquid-cooled or later M2HB air-cooled type “Ma Deuce”. CA142, 143 and 149 were all suspended, although materials for them were held pending a decision as to their fate. The term “CA” was a fairly ancient one, dating back to the first USN protected and armoured cruisers, before WW1. The last one, USS Tucson was only completed by 3 February 1945, to be discarded in 1949. This left room for many improvements indeed. A record which was due to the need of mass-producing cruisers to make it for the losses, notably around Guadalcanal on the infamous ‘ironbottom sound’. The latter were very lightly built, yet large cruisers, displacing only 3,750 tons standard, armed with just two 5 in (127 mm)/50 caliber Mark 6 guns and an array of 3-in guns, good only for annoying torpedo boats. But dispersion was considerable at this distance. The Omaha class were designed in observance of the tasks as the Chester (and a replacement), but upgraded to the new 6-in gun caliber to give an edge on any destroyer in service, and a speed to match the same destroyers, including those to be led as squadron leader. 13. 32.7 knots max. USS San Francisco in March 1945, the horizontal livery in effect since the end of 1944, of light gray/medium gray/dark blue, Characteristics (in 1941): Displacement: 9,950 t, 12,400 T FL Dimensions: 179,27 x 18,82 x 5,9 m Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 Westinghouse turbines, 8 B&C boilers, 107,000 hp. But that implied also a slower speed. On trials, Des Moines achieved 125,630shp = 32.66kts at 20,532t. Pollies here refer to it as the future frigate or CSC. At roughly 7,000 tons it is 2000 tons more displacement than the RCN’s Iroquois destroyers from the late 1970s. 1933. 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft Crew: 868, USS Wichita and USS Wasp at Scapa Flow by April 1942. The Wichita entered service in 1939, and she was an important milestone in the design of USN heavy cruisers of the 1940s: The Baltimores class studied in 1940 were closely inspired by the Wichita. Maximum speed: 32.5 knots Shield: Belt 57, turrets 65, bridges 160-50 Weaponry: 9 guns of 203 (3 × 3), 8 of 127, 8 ML 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft Crew: 917. Nothing of that scale was ever built afterwards, even when the USSR unveiled in 1979 its famous Kirov class “battlecruisers”. A record which was due to the need of mass-producing cruisers to make it for the losses, notably around Guadalcanal on the infamous ‘ironbottom sound’. Jan 4, 2021 #4 I think Chris’s explanation is right on. Not quite true in international terms - the La Fayettes for example carry F pennant numbers so they are NATO designation frigates; and certainly in the past their frigates have been numerous. However their main armament still remained 8 or 9 pieces of 203 mm. MarketingTracer SEO Dashboard, created for webmasters and agencies. Like other navies, welding construction technique was adopted to save tons of steels rivets. The displacement being limited to 6,000 tons was the result of the second treaty of London in 1936 for extra tonnage cruisers. As the decision to pass to a new class was made in mid-1943, the next cruisers to be ordered were order to ensure that some of the new twin DP 6in/47 mounts were sent to However, he was overruled and later CA140 and 141, which were little advanced, were cancelled. This did dot resolved completely their problem, but having their turrets swapped for example or the superrfiring ones removed seemed not to have been an option. They fired a 335 pounds (152 kg) A.P. Therefore 10,000 tons cruisers armed with 6-in guns were now, if not desirable, realistic. The base design was the New Orleans, but in the end there were many changes. The Baltimores were to resume studies with the USS Wichita and push their advantage in a more massive hull while paying particular attention to protection. 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